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Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

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Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

On October 2, 1869, he was born in India under the shackles of British colonialism. He was shy, shy, and well-behaved since childhood. At the age of 13, he married an illiterate girl of the same age at the behest of his parents.

In 1888, Gandhi did not hesitate to be expelled from his caste status, traveled far and wide, went to London to study, and studied law at University College London. The alien civilization once made Gandhi have a profound inferiority complex and fell at its feet, and the constraints of religious stereotypes made him at a loss in a new environment. After a short period of confusion and exploration, he finally gave up the blind imitation of Western civilization, adhered to his original religious beliefs and embraced other religious teachings, accepted the education of British legal thought, obtained a law degree from University College London, and Qualify as a lawyer.

After returning from his studies, he began to practice law in Mumbai, but suffered setbacks. The first time I filed a lawsuit for someone, I fell into the pot because of stage fright. After half a year, he returned to his hometown and maintained his lawyer business in his hometown of Lachkot with the support of his brother, relatives and friends. The lack of improvement and the suffocating environment of the lawyer's business made him feel depressed and depressed. When there was a case for an Indian from South Africa to deal with, he embarked on a journey to South Africa without hesitation.

Gandhi and his wife (1902)
Gandhi and his wife (1902)
In South Africa, a British colony where racial discrimination is deeply rooted and ubiquitous, Gandhi, as a person of color, has encountered a series of discrimination and humiliation. His national pride and the suffering of his countrymen here drove him to become a prominent figure in leading South African Indians' struggle against racism. It was in South Africa, a land full of racial discrimination, that Gandhi denied the Western civilization he once admired, cultivated and exercised his ability to engage in public work, mastered the secret of being a successful lawyer, and basically formed his Religion, outlook on life, socio-political outlook. The arduous struggle against racial discrimination he led in South Africa won basic equal rights for South African Indians, and he also successfully tested an effective weapon-the doctrine of truth and non-violence and its practice. However, in this anti-discrimination process, Gandhi was still full of illusions about the British Empire.

Gandhi in South Africa in 1895
Gandhi in South Africa in 1895
In 1915, Gandhi returned to India. In the early years of his return to China, he traveled around India in a third-class car to gain a better understanding of his long-lost homeland. A year later, he began giving speeches, promoting his ideas, engaging in nonviolent struggles, and experimenting and developing nonviolent doctrines. He supported the war that was going on at the time, hoping in exchange for the kindness of Britain to grant India self-government. The various actions of the colonial authorities after "World War I" turned Gandhi from a loyal follower of the British Empire into a non-cooperator.

From March to April 1919, he launched a nationwide non-violent resistance movement in order to protest the reactionary "Rollat ​​Law". Cooperated with the government, but the British government continued to pervert the caliphate and the Punjab issue, shattering Gandhi's illusions. Under the situation of the anti-British struggle of the whole people in India, Gandhi's non-cooperation thought matured, and he took the lead in launching a mass non-violent non-cooperation movement to boycott the colonial government's legislature, courts, schools, titles and foreign goods in the caliphate movement. , and then promoted as a form of national anti-imperialist struggle.

Gandhi in 1909
Gandhi in 1909
In September 1920, the special session of the Congress Party in Calcutta and the annual meeting in Napur in December formally adopted Gandhi's plan of non-violence and non-cooperation and the party platform drafted by Gandhi.

In February 1922, due to violent incidents in the movement, Gandhi announced the cessation of the first non-violent non-cooperation movement, which dampened morale and caused ideological confusion within the Congress Party. Gandhi was also behind bars. After his release from prison, Gandhi worked to revive the morale of the people.

On December 31, 1929, the Congress Party's annual meeting in Lahore passed a resolution for Indian independence and authorized Gandhi to lead a new non-cooperative movement.

In March 1930, he led 78 volunteers to start the "Salt Long March" (see the entry "Salt March"), which opened the prelude to the second non-violent non-cooperation movement and dealt a huge blow to the British colonialists. While the movement was in progress, Gandhi negotiated with the Governor and attended a round table meeting. As a result, the mass movement slackened and was brutally suppressed by the British.

In October 1934, Gandhi announced his withdrawal from the party due to renewed serious disagreements with the Congress leadership, but continued to guide the work of the Congress on key issues.

On September 3, 1939, after Britain declared war on behalf of India, Gandhi's extreme non-violent stance clashed sharply with the congress party leadership's conditional support for war, resulting in his dismissal twice, and the stubborn refusal of the British government. Meeting the demands of the Congress Party, the Congress Party invited Gandhi to come back twice. During this period, Gandhi's anti-imperialist stance further changed.

In April 1942, under the situation that anti-British sentiments of the masses in India were high and the Japanese invaders were approaching India, Gandhi put forward the slogan of "exiting India" of the United Kingdom, and successively launched the third non-cooperation movement from 1940 to 1941 and Preparations to launch the fourth non-cooperation movement were suppressed by the British.

Gandhi was imprisoned until May 1944. After the war, the British government, which was in trouble both at home and abroad, was deterred by the renewed pressure of the Indian National Liberation Movement and agreed to India's request for independence. However, due to the long-standing differences and confrontations between India and Muslim religions, and the influence of the British policy of divide and rule, India and Pakistan have become a foregone conclusion. Gandhi made unremitting efforts to maintain the unity of India, but he had no choice but to accept partition.

After independence, Gandhi was held in high esteem by the Indian people and the Congress party.

On January 30, 1948, Gandhi was assassinated by a Hindu diehard.

Pub Time : 2022-01-29 14:32:08 >> News list
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